ALUMINUM

ALUMINUM

Aluminum (also spelled Aluminium) is a block P, group 13 chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13, the second – with iron being first, most used metal in industrial applications due to its unique properties. Aluminum is the third most common chemical element on Earth, after oxygen and silicon, and the most abundant metal in our planet’s crust.

WOLFTEN offers rods, bars, plates, pipes and other materials made of Aluminum.

In Poland, WOLFTEN is an exclusive distributor of WMH Group Germany – a German supplier of aluminum products across a wide range of industries, including aviation, space and construction. With this partnership, not only do we gain an experienced partner and tangible know-how in aluminum-based products, but also high quality, certified products and a reliable supply chain.

WMH

Aluminum products offered by WOLFTEN

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aluminum bars

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aluminum plates

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aluminum pipes

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aluminum bars

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aluminum bars

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aluminum plates

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aluminum plates

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aluminum plates

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aluminum plates

Aluminum properties

Aluminum, in comparison with other metals, is relatively light weight. Its density is 2,7g/cm3, which makes a third that of steel. Aluminum is a silvery-white metal, with a high thermal expansion coefficient and a good resistance to atmospheric corrosion, it shows a good thermal and electrical conductivity. Aluminum is susceptible to machining and, thank to its plasticity, has wide-spread industrial applications.

The advantage of aluminum alloys is that their resilience does not decrease in low temperatures, hence they are less brittle, more sturdy and due to a natural formation of oxidized layer on the surface, they show high corrosion resistance.

Aluminum use and applications

The most popular aluminum-based materials in the industrial applications are the multi-element alloys such as Al-Si-Cu-Mg-Ni or Al-Cu-Ni. They are used in the aviation, space or medical industries and are also popularly utilized for military implementations.

Refined aluminum is often used for chemical applications, to manufacture elements of chemical apparatus and electronic devices. It is also used for manufacturing flat screen monitors and semiconductor chips, through the ion beam sputter deposition process. Learn more about sputtering targets for vacuum metalization. Ultra pure aluminum oxide is used as a coating material for batteries and LED chips. Refined aluminum, due to its resemblance to silver, has a wide decorative applications and could be employed for a high-polish coating of the material.

Primary aluminum (product of electrolytic reduction of aluminum oxide) is principally used by the electronics industry to manufacture capacitor foils, the chemical industry for elements of chemical devices, and other applications such as electrical cables, cords or other general use products.

AVIATION INDUSTRY

Fuselage frames, engine parts, aircraft structural component, wings surface.

MEDICAL INDUSTRY

Various devices and medical apparatus.

SHIP BUILDING INDUSTRY

Components of ships and yachts, structural elements.

SPACE EXPLORATION INDUSTRY

Space probes’ structural elements.

MILITARY INDUSTRY

Ammo, missiles, parts and components for military aircraft and various military equipment.

Aluminum, use and applications

Types of aluminum

Aluminum alloys are grouped into three main categories:

  • wrought non-heat treated alloys – strengthened by cold working, which include the series 1xxx (commercially pure aluminum), 3xxx (aluminum-manganese), some of the 4xxx series (aluminum-silicon) and the 5xxx series (aluminum-magnesium);
  • wrought heat treated alloys – strengthened by precipitation hardening, including the series: 2xxx (Al-Cu or Al-Cu-Mg), 6xxx (Al-Mg-Si) and 7xxx (Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu);
  • casting alloys – include both heat and non-heat treatable alloys.

Alloy series

Main alloying elements

1xxx Commercially pure, minimum 99%
2xxx Copper
3xxx Manganese
4xxx Silicon
5xxx Magnesium
6xxx Magnesium and Silicon
7xxx Zinc
8xxx Other alloys

 

Since there is a large number of available aluminum alloys on the market, in order to make sense of the differences, both chemical and physical, among them, they are grouped by temper – or hardness – designations. Temper designations are alphanumerical following the alloy designation (alloy series) and they help to identify how the alloy has been treated mechanically and thermally in order to achieve desired characteristics.

There are basic temper designations, are as per the following:

  • F – as fabricated,
  • O – annealed wrought product,
  • H – strain-hardened,
  • W – solution heat-treated,
  • T – thermally treated, these could also be further grouped to stipulate the specific thermal treatment:
    • T1 – naturally aged after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process,
    • T2 – naturally aged after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process and cold worked,
    • T3 – solution heat treated, cold worked and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition,
    • T6 – solution heat treated and artificially aged,
    • T7 – solution heat treated and stabilized (overaged).

WOLFTEN offers the following aluminum types: 7050, 2024, 6061, 7075, 7010, 7020, 4032, 2618A, 2196. Products we offer are certified for the following standards: ABS, QQA, AMS, ASNA, LN, ASTM.

Aluminum 7050

Generally speaking, 7xxx series are a heat-treatable aluminum zinc alloys. These alloys show one of the highest strengths among other aluminum series, comparable with structural steel. 7xxx series find use in high performance applications, such as aircraft and space.

Aluminum 7050 is widely used in the aviation industry. It is very suitable for applications, where minimum maintenance and high durability is required. Some aircraft elements such as fuselage or other structural components are made of Aluminum 7050.

This alloy gained its popularity upon introduction of commercial aircraft after the World War II, offering high mechanical properties, good ductility and formability, yet low costs and low risk of element failure and necessity for replacement. Alloy 7050, as the rest of 7xxx series, is commonly used in applications requiring high durability materials.

Aluminum 7050 plates are currently more popular in aircraft building applications than 7075 (especially where plate thickness ranges between 3 and 6 inches). Moreover, alloy 7050 shows better durability, corrosion resistance and corrosion stress cracking. It is also much less susceptible to hardening than other alloys used in the aviation industry, and it retains its durability in thicker selections.

Chemical composition [%]

Alloy 7050 Mg Mn Fe Si Cu Zn Cr Ti Zr Others each Others total Al
1.9 – 2.6 ≤ 0.10 ≤ 0.15 ≤ 0.12 2.0 – 2.6 5.7 – 6.7 ≤ 0.04 ≤ 0.06 0.08 – 0.15 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.15 Rem.

Standards

Use and applications

EN 7050
WL 3.4144
TEMPER T7451/T7651
ABS 5323/5324
  • Fuselage frames
  • Partitions
  • Wings surface
  • Aircraft structural elements
  • Other components of commercial and military aircrafts

Aluminum 7075 / 7175

Aluminum 7075 is an alloy which shows high durability properties, great thermal conductivity and medium corrosion resistance. It is easy to machine and susceptible to a polishing process. It’s an ideal material for electrical discharge machining. Most popular applications consist injection molds, foamed plastics molds or guiding heads.

Many of Aluminum 7075 properties make it a universal material for various applications across different industries. Due to a fantastic strength-to-mass ratio, it remains the most popular building material for the aviation, sea and off-shore industries.

Chemical composition [%]

Alloy 7075 Mg Mn Fe Si Cu Zn Cr Ti Others each Others total Al
2.10 – 2.90 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.40 1.20 – 2.00 5.10 – 6.10 0.18 – 0.28 ≤ 0.20 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.15 Rem.

Standards

Use and applications

EN 7075/7175
WL 3.4364
TEMPER T7351/T651
ABS 5064
DIN AlZnMgCu1,5
GOST -(~W95)
  • Sport equipment components
  • Tools
  • Worm and planetary gear units
  • Ammunition
  • Parts of valves in commercial aircrafts
  • Aviation and military equipment
  • Elements of assault rifles

 

Aluminum 7010

Aluminum 7010 is a series 7xxx alloy, with zinc-magnesium as an alloying element. Aluminum 7010 gives a balance among its mechanical properties – strength, toughness and resistance to stress corrosion. Its composition is similar to that one of 7050, with zirconium dispersoid particles which allow the retention of high strength in thick sections, caused by a low quench sensitivity. This alloy is used in the aerospace industry for its high strength and excellent fracture resistance.

Chemical composition [%]

Alloy 7010 Mg Mn Fe Si Cu Zn Cr Ti Ni Zr Others each Others total Al
2.10 – 2.60 ≤ 0.10 ≤ 0.15 ≤ 0.12 1.50 – 2.00 5.70 – 6.70 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.06 ≤ 0.05 0.10 – 0.16 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.15 Rem.

Standards

Use and applications

EN 7010
WL 3.4394
TEMPER T7451/T7651
ABS 5323
DIN AlZn6MgCu
  • High performance elements for the aerospace industry

Aluminum 7020

This is a heat treatable, naturally age hardened alloy, which means it recovers its mechanical properties in a heat affected areas – for example after welding. It is primarily formed into wrought products. Its main alloying element is zinc, which increases the fatigue stress. This alloy shows very good mechanical strength and good machinability.

Chemical composition [%]

Alloy 7020 Mg Mn Fe Si Cu Zn Cr Zr Zr+Ti Others each Others total Al
1.00 – 1.40 0.05 – 0.50 ≤ 0.40 ≤ 0.35 ≤ 0.20 4.00 – 5.00 0.10 – 0.35 0.08 – 0.25 0.08 – 0.25 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.15 Rem.

Standards

Use and applications

EN 7020
WL 3.4335
TEMPER T6
DIN AlZn4,5Mg1
GOST 1915
  • Welded structural elements and highly loaded construction parts
  • Components of cranes and bridges
  • Rail transport

Aluminum 2024

Aluminum 2024 – an alloy with copper as a main alloying component, primarily used as wrought products, shows attractive features such as high strength and also its ductility does not decrease by strengthening heat treatment procedures. It is available in an annealed state as well as T3, T4 and T8 tempers. Fair machinability, good strength and fatigue resistance make it one of the most popular aluminum alloys in the aerospace industry.

Chemical composition [%]

Alloy 2024 Mg Mn Fe Si Cu Zn Cr Ti Others each Others total Al
1.20 – 1.80 0.30 – 0.90 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.50 3.80 – 4.90 ≤ 0.25 ≤ 0.10 ≤ 0.15 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.15 Rem.

Standards

Use and applications

EN 2024
WL 3.1364
TEMPER T0/T3/T351
ABS 5032, 5044
DIN AlCu4Mg1
GOST D16
  • Aircraft structural applications
  • Gears and shafts
  • Computer elements
  • Ammo
  • Fastening elements
  • Orthopedic devices

Aluminum 6061

This aluminum is referred to as a structural aluminum because its mechanical properties fit a broad spectrum of applications – especially building, piping and electrical products. It shows medium to high strength, good corrosion resistance and good weldability.
The most popular temper of this alloy is T6.

Chemical composition [%]

Alloy 6061 Mg Mn Fe Si Cu Zn Cr Ti Others each Others total Al
0.80 – 1.20 ≤ 0.15 ≤ 0.70 0.40 – 0.80 0.15 – 0.40 ≤ 0.25 0.04 – 0.35 ≤ 0.15 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.15 Rem.

Standards

Use and applications

EN 6061
WL 3.3214
TEMPER T0/T651/T451
DIN AlMg1CuSi
GOST AD-33
  • Aircraft industry – helicopter rotor coatings
  • Civic construction elements, such as bridges
  • Ship building industry
  • Transport industry applications, wagon frames

Aluminum 4032

4032 is a wrought aluminum-silicon alloy, the strongest aluminum of 4xxx series. High silicon content makes this alloy more durable, however it decreases the overall ductility. This material is particularly popular in the automotive industry to produce pistons for reciprocating engines or other engine components, because it has an excellent abrasion and corrosion resistance. In comparison with 2618A alloy, which also includes silicon, yet smaller content of it, 4032 shows much less linear expansion and excellent wear rate but its balanced by reduction of high impact loads resistance and less ductility. This alloy also finds applications in elements for low and high temperature working environments.

Chemical composition [%]

Alloy 4032 Mg Ni Fe Si Cu Zn Cr Others each Others total Al
0.80 – 1.30 0.50 – 1.30 ≤1.0 11.0 – 13.5 0.50 – 1.30 ≤ 0.25 ≤ 0.10 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.15 Rem.

Standards

Use and applications

EN 4032
TEMPER T06/T651
DIN AlSi12.5MgCuNi
  • Pistons and other engine components
  • Parts and elements used in high temperature working environment

Aluminum 2618A

This alloy shows superior strength in high temperatures, good machinability and resistance to corrosion in atmospheric conditions. It can be easily found in jet engines, structural elements or piping systems. Also, it is a very popular among auto-sport enthusiasts, as engine pistons show excellent absorption of excessive heat without breaking.

Chemical composition [%]

Alloy 2618A Mg Mn Fe Si Cu Zn Ni Ti Zr + Ti Others each Others total Al
1.2 – 1.8 ≤0.25 0.9 – 1.4 0.15 – 0.25 1.8 – 2.7 ≤ 0.15 0.8 – 1.4 ≤ 0.20 ≤ 0.25 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.15 Rem.

Standards

Use and applications

EN 2618A
WL 3.1924
TEMPER T351/T651/T851
DIN AlCu2Mg1,5Ni
  • Engine pistons and engine body
  • Products or elements exposed to high service temperatures